Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy.

In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Too much glucose then stays in your blood, and not enough reaches your cells.

How does insulin work


Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly. In fact, you can be living with type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. When signs and symptoms are present, they may include: • Increased thirst • Frequent urination • Increased hunger • Unintended weight loss • Fatigue • Blurred vision • Slow-healing sores • Frequent infections • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet

Frequent urination
Always thirsty
Always hungry
Sudden weight loss/gain
Blurred vision
Wounds won't heal
Tingling in hands or feets

Check if you are already diabetic, based on the symptoms you may be experiencing by clicking here

Who is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes?

You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, type 2 diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight or have obesity.

Physical inactivity and certain health problems such as high blood pressure affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant.


Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Results are interpreted as follows: • Below 5.7% is normal. • 5.7% to 6.4% are diagnosed with prediabetes. • 6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes, and kidneys. Potential complications of diabetes and frequent comorbidities include: • Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and narrowing of blood vessels (atherosclerosis). • Nerve damage (neuropathy) in limbs. High blood sugar over time can damage or destroy nerves, resulting in tingling, numbness, burning, pain, or eventual loss of feeling that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. • Kidney disease. Diabetes may lead to chronic kidney disease or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant. • Eye damage. Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma, and may damage the blood vessels of the retina, potentially leading to blindness. • Skin conditions. Diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections. • Slow healing. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can become serious infections, which may heal poorly. Severe damage might require toe, foot, or leg amputation. • Hearing impairment. Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes. • Sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is common in people living with type 2 diabetes. Obesity may be the main contributing factor to both conditions. It's not clear whether treating sleep apnea improves blood sugar control. • Dementia. Type 2 diabetes seems to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other disorders that cause dementia. Poor control of blood sugar levels is linked to a more rapid decline in memory and other thinking skills.

Diabetes medications

Along with following your diabetes care plan, you may need diabetes medicines, which may include pills or medicines you inject under your skin, such as insulin. Over time, you may need more than one diabetes medicine to manage your blood glucose.

Even if you don’t take insulin, you may need it at special times, such as during pregnancy or if you are in the hospital. You also may need medicines for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or other conditions.

Insulin therapy

Some people who have type 2 diabetes need insulin therapy. In the past, insulin therapy was used as a last resort, but today it may be prescribed sooner if blood sugar targets aren't met with lifestyle changes and other medications.

Different types of insulin vary on how quickly they begin to work and how long they have an effect. Long-acting insulin, for example, is designed to work overnight or throughout the day to keep blood sugar levels stable. Short-acting insulin might be used at mealtime.

insulin therapy


if you have risk factors for the disease. Here are some things you can do to lower your risk: * Eating healthy foods. Choose foods lower in fat and calories and higher in fiber. Focus on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. • Getting active. Aim for 150 or more minutes a week of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity, such as brisk walking, bicycling, running, or swimming. • Losing weight. Losing a modest amount of weight and keeping it off can delay the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. If you have prediabetes, losing 7% to 10% of your body weight can reduce the risk of diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can begin during childhood and adulthood. Type 2 is more common in older adults, but the increase in the number of children with obesity has led to more cases of type 2 diabetes in younger people.

There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well, and exercising can help you manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

Type 2 Diabetes

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